P. S. Hoffman's Writing Blog

How J.K. Rowling Describes Unforgettable Characters (With Examples)

When J.K. Rowling introduces new characters you can visualize them almost instantly:

  • Lightning bolt scar.
  • Hand-me down robes.
  • A mane of bushy, brown hair.

J.K. Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter series, excels at writing unforgettable physical descriptions of her characters. I want to show you the magic behind her technique. 

Read this, and you will be able to create your own vivid characters in just a few short strokes of your writing quill...

How to Rapidly Write Physical Descriptions (that Your Readers will Love and Remember)

The boy who lived…

What does he look like?

I bet you can picture Harry Potter in your mind:

  • Green eyes
  • Glasses (maybe broken)
  • Messy hair that never lays flat

But, above all else, there was one defining characteristic that made him unique:

  • The scar in the shape of a lightning bolt.


J.K. Rowling knew one trick to physical description that most authors (yes, even professional authors) can’t seem to remember:

“If you want to write a physical description of your character that sticks with your audience, focus on the single most interesting characteristic, and build your character around that."

What characteristic should it be?

  • It should be unique
  • It should be highly relevant to a specific character, or to the greater story

Harry’s lightning scar represented the incredible power of a Mother’s love. In many ways, it was the reason (or at least the catalyst) for his greatness.

To Harry, it reminded him of the family he never had.

To everyone else, it reminded him that even in the face of death, here was the living embodiment of hope.

When you focus on the single most interesting physical attribute of your character, you can form a memorable character - and you’ll be able to avoid the “physical description laundry list.”

J. K. Rowling in 2010

3 Reasons to Avoid the “Physical Description Laundry List”

  1. They’re boring.
  2. They usually don’t add anything to the story.
  3. Many readers glaze over them, or find them hard to remember.

I’m reading a book called Ancillary Justice. It’s fantastic so far, but there was one passage I read that made my mind go blank:

“...slight, dark hair, brown skin, and brown eyes unremarkable, unlike the aristocratic lines of her face, including a nose she hadn’t quite grown into yet.”

It took me about five seconds to forget every word of that character description. Actually, I've forgotten it again. What color is her hair now?

When you read a list like this:

  • Height
  • Hair color
  • Eye color
  • Skin color
  • Body shape
  • Mouth shape
  • Nose shape, fingernail shape, hair length, etc.

Does this actually help you visualize a character? Rarely.

Most readers glance over lists like these, or they read it and forget all of the details in seconds.

Don’t build a birdhouse with a hundred nails, when you could just use one.

It slows down the pace of your story. It kills reader immersion. And, worst of all, it’s not going to add anything to the story.

As with all “writing rules,” this one has one major caveat:

One Caveat to Writing Physical Description Lists

Sometimes, laundry lists are part of the story.

Let’s look at American Psycho, a story about a sociopath who is obsessed with appearances.

The main character is a sociopath, so every time he sees someone he lists everything he notices about them.

But the author uses this to great effect: He tints the list with emotional details.

Usually, the details are shallow ("he was still wearing last year's Armani suit"), but sometimes they're meant to disturb us ("and a slender, white neck that was made for bruising"). This is an excellent way to show off his "casually psychotic" personality.


You might also see instances of the laundry list in mysteries when the detectives analyze a victim or potential criminal. Even so, the best ones usually focus on characteristics that are: 

  • unique
  • interesting
  • can be used to further (or disguise) the mystery

David Mamet, the screenwriter behind Hannibal and Glengarry Glen Ross walks you through how to build a succinct character "profile" in his MasterClass course. He covers the 4 key elements (no more, no less) when crafting characters.

The idea is to quickly create a realistic character that gets your readers hooked.

Check out his full-length course here. For writers who like to improve by watching others, it's very good stuff. Strongly recommended.

More Examples of Physical Description from J.K. Rowling and Other Famous Authors

In these examples, I also want to show you why the Authors chose to focus on these physical characteristics:

Hermione Granger

In the books, Hermione always had one obvious, identifying feature:

A mane of bushy, brown hair.

Not quite "bushy" in the movies.

Harry could always tell it was her by the tangle of hair sticking out over some ancient, arcane textbook.

Rowling used this unique characteristic for several plot reasons:

  1. To build character: Bushy hair is not a classically attractive feature. It’s obvious that physical appearance is not the most important thing to her (unlike some of the other vain female characters in Harry Potter).
  2. To "shorthand" her personality: It was supposed to be a symbol that Hermione was “gawky, geeky, ugly duckling” unlike the Emma Watson from the films.

Here’s a little more on Rowling’s physical description of Hermione:

Ron Weasley

Red Hair. Freckles. Hand-me-down clothes.


This one is a bit of a cheat, since it’s several characteristics combined into one.

However, the true physical description here is that Ron’s looks single him out as a Weasley.

Rowling uses this unique physical description as a constant point of conflict between Ron and his family, or Ron and his family’s enemies, and even serves to connect Harry to Ron (Harry always dreamed of having a family, whereas Ron’s looks mean he can never escape his).  


Doesn’t have a nose.

Just kidding.

Lord Voldemort Smiling
Is this really what the author had in mind?

The first time we meet Voldemort, he is literally a face on the back of someone’s head. If that’s not a unique physical description, I don’t know what is...

Later on, his unifying characteristics are his snakelike attributes that prove his evil, Slytherin blood…

Hey, nobody said Rowling was subtle.


Half-human, half-giant.


This description becomes an important plot point in the second book, and causes conflict for Hagrid through out the series.

In the first book, she uses it to create atmosphere - to show you the kind of magic that is possible in this world.

Actually, Rowling does something clever here. She uses Hagrid’s imposing physical size as a counter-balance to his soft, warm-hearted personality. This was a really clever way to show that “not everything is as it seems” before Harry even enters the magical world.


The name alone conjures up a wizened, gentle face…

But I bet you’re picturing his beard, aren’t you? Waist-length and silver as the rising Moon.

Dumbledore pointing wand at his head

The beard is a symbol of his wisdom, and implies his lengthy experience too. You see it, and you think, “he’s not just old, he is ancient.

J.K. Rowling could paint a picture of a character just by focusing on one or two key physical characteristics…

By doing this, she planted images in our heads that would last for years. Maybe much longer?

More Character Descriptions Examples from Harry Potter:

You can play around with idea with most of J.K. Rowling’s characters. I bet by listing a single feature, you can guess these next three:

  • The cocky sneer
  • Greasy black hair
  • Five-time winner of Witch Weekly’s “Most Charming Smile” Award

3 Character Descriptions from Other Professional Authors

Check out these other physical description examples from some of my other favorite authors:

Roland Deschain and Randall Flagg, The Dark Tower Series by Stephen King

I love Roland Deschain. He’s one of my favorite characters of all time. Cool, calm, collected, and hard to kill.

the Man in Black

But I have two problems with his character:

  1. It’s easy for me to picture him because I know he’s supposed to look like Clint Eastwood… which is cheating, and won’t work for most characters.
  2. Stephen King fell into a trap here: the "eye color" trap.

Usually, you see Authors say “and his eyes were a piercing blue.” Sometimes it’s green.

Eye Color as the distinguishing feature has long since entered "trope-hood." White authors especially tend to write characters with "piercing green or blue eyes."

Some would consider this lazy, unoriginal writing - but don't take this as a rule. If it helps you build your character, use it.

I think Stephen King did a much better job describing Randall Flagg, the central antagonist in The Dark Tower series.

Watch how he nails the physical description of this character in the first four words of the entire series:

“The man in black fled across the desert, and the gunslinger followed.”

Pretty good, right? Makes you want to read more, but it also clues you in to what kind of character "the man in black" might be.

Drizzt, The Dark Elf Trilogy by R. A. Salvatore

A series that is dear to my heart, one of the first Fantasy Epics I ever devoured.

I think R.A. Salvatore (the Author), also falls into the "eye color" trap here: his character is special because his eyes are violet, whereas most dark elves have red eyes.

Some people argue this is important because he is supposed to be different than every other dark elf - he's not as vicious, mean-spirited as they are. He is the bridge between the red-eyed Underdark, and the blue-eyed elves who live above.

A better physical of Drizzt might be his dual scimitars.

They show that he is not just an ordinary swordsman. Dual weapons are a very rare fighting style, even in Drizzt’s world. In many ways, they are the reason why he - and he alone - is able to escape the fate that besets all male dark elves.

I wanted to show you this example, because I want you to know: physical description is not all about faces and bodies. It can be the things your characters choose to take with them, as well.

Rincewind, The Colour of Magic by Terry Pratchett

Rincewind the Wizard was once described as…

“The magical equivalent to the number zero.”

What a fantastic description, right? I bet you can picture him in your head already.

Droopy, ill-fitting robes. Long, lanky limbs. Probably walks like a scarecrow.

Rincewind looks sort of like this...

Here's one last tip:

Your main physical descriptions don't need to be physical at all. Metaphors can create far more powerful mental images than any single physical description.

Go Forth and Write Unforgettable Characters

Look at your latest cast of characters.

What makes them unique? What is the first thing you would notice were you to meet them in real life?

Build your characters around those one or two defining features, and your readers will remember them for years to come.

Your Next Writing Exercise

Pick five hero characters - either from your current work, or from your favorite books, and pick out their defining physical characteristics.

Feel free to list them in the comments below! I'd love to hear from you.

Related: Hemingway's 7 Tricks to More Immersive Dialogue

15 comments on “How J.K. Rowling Describes Unforgettable Characters (With Examples)”

  1. Great post and a tip I tend to have trouble with as far as my protagonist goes. My bad guys always seem to feel more unique and easier to visualize than my good guys.

    1. Thank you Tammie!

      I've heard from a lot of writers that the villains come out much more easily.

      I think the reason for this is... it's easier to distance ourselves from the Villains. They become true "characters" in our heads, complete with flaws and histories and power and agency.

      Whereas our Protagonists tend to look a little bit more like the author... and we tend to be too kind to our protagonists. We make it easy for them. We let the world happen to them, instead of them happening to the world.

      Unlike villains, who we love wind up and set loose on the world. Does this sound like you at all?

      I'm actually really glad you made this comment, because I've been having the opposite problem lately.

      I'm writing a novel right now. And you made me realize how weak my villains are, compared to my protagonists. What makes writing villains so easy for you?

      1. I think for me it may be easier to "be" the villain because I'm already in the mindset that I need to make things as hard for my protagonist as possible and want to be as mean to him/her as I can manage. Thinking of it this way, I find I'm much more in the villain's head than the hero's. Plus, playing the bad guy is kind of therapeutic...who wouldn't like unleashing a bit of anger and villainy in a way that won't have the police come bashing down our doors!?

          1. Not yet. I do have a few ideas for stories where the protagonist is a bit of a rogue but haven't gotten around to them yet. I imagine those are going to be fun characters to play with. Even though I'm not planning to write crime fiction, the Dexter books are a perfect study in creating an anti-hero.

  2. I'm writing a dystopian trilogy and I also find that my villain comes easier, he's conflicted and suffering but its harder to make sure my protagonist has enough flaws.

  3. I love this article. One of the things that always slow down my writing is my OCD when it comes to character description. I tend to forget that this is a written story, not a TV show or movie, so all you really need is some key descriptions to allow the reader to paint an image in their mind.

    This becomes even more imperative in "non-Caucasian" settings where all the character have similar features so it becomes crucial to focus on other unique characteristics.

    For example, in the Conn Igulden Genghis Khan books, most of the main characters are all Mongolian (copper skin, almond eyes, black hair, etc) but he does a good job of making them all unique based on their personalities.

    1. SD - I love those books. Conn Igulden is extremely talented at keeping you hooked in historical settings.

      "Not a TV show or movie" - you might even see this as an advantage. On-the-page writers are able to draw focus for an inordinately long time to one or two key features, spending several sentences or paragraphs really sharpening that feature until its laden with emotional weight. Take Snape from the Harry Potter books vs. Snape from the Movies. Alan Rickman was the perfect casting for that character, but did you ever really hate him? Probably not the same as the book-Snape, who had many paragraphs dedicated to his unsavory sneer, his greasy hair.

      As for the "non-Caucasion" setting, perhaps a better way to state that would be a non-homogenous setting. There are places in Utah or West Virginia that are nearly 100% caucasian, and everyone looks like they crawled out of the same gene pool. Then, you can have the herdsmen of the Steppe, who have vastly different body compositions, facial features, etc. because of a variety of environmental and nurture factors. Nothing is ever so simple! Thank you for the comment 🙂


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P. S. Hoffman
About P. S. Hoffman
P. S. Hoffman writes Science Fiction and Fantasy. He is obsessed with all things futuristic, primarily Artificial Intelligence and the transformation of societies. Here, he shows others how to sharpen their fiction-writing skills by dissecting the techniques used by the world's best authors.

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